Journal for Research| Volume 01| Issue 08 | October ISSN: Four Quadrant Speed Control of DC Motor with the Help of AT89S52 Microcontroller. PDF | On Oct 1, , Vinod S. Patil and others published Four quadrant Download full-text PDF Keywords—DC Motor,Chopper control,,speed control, four .. depending on the sampling frequency of the microcontroller. Abstract In this paper a four quadrant speed control system for DC motor has been designed, constructed and tested. The main advantage in using a DC.
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The main aim to design this paper is to develop a four quadrant speed control of a DC motor with the help of the microcontroller. The most important part of any. DC Motor speed control is carried out by use of Four Quadrant Chopper drive. Microcontroller - Download as circuit or the completed without a control system. The adjustable speed drive provides control of a series motor in four modes; forward motoring, forward approach was taken, with a microcontroller forming the heart of the design. Most of the as a free download from the internet. Mikrobasic pdf>.
All rights reserved by 14 5 Fig. Waveform Of Reverse Braking Of Dc Motor All rights reserved by 16 7 Hardware Implementation: The hardware model has been designed and implemented for speed control of dc motor using AT89S52 microcontroller and the waveform of input pulse given to dc motor from pin of microcontroller has been observed on digital CRO. And the waveforms for four quadrant modes of operations are achieved for different duty cycle achieved.
Waveform of Forward Braking Fig. As the width of pulse varies, average voltage applied to motor varies and so the speed of dc motor also varies.
Push Button switches are provided to control the speed of the dc motor. A simulated model has been developed by proteus software and then result has been verified using a prototype hardware model.
In the proposed model, the PWM technique has been used to control the speed of dc motor. By variation in duty cycle, applied voltage varies therefore speed of dc motor can be controlled.
Four Quadrant DC Motor Control Without Microcontroller
The waveform of input pulse given to DC motor has been taken for different values of duty cycle and it has been observed that speed of dc motor is directly proportional to duty cycle, i. The waveform of input pulse of dc motor has been taken for forward and reverse braking mode and it has been observed that amplitude of waveform became high for very short duration and after that amplitude becomes zero.
In the experimental result it has been observed that some harmonics are occurred. It is due to different nonlinear electronic components such as diodes, transistors etc. It has been observed that amplitude of waveform obtained in proteus simulated model is 5v while it is 3. It is due to the fact that some voltage drop has been taken place across resisters used in the prototype developed model. It is practical and highly feasible in economic point of view and has an advantage of running motors of higher ratings.
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It gives a reliable, durable, accurate and efficient way of speed control of a DC motor. The program is found to be efficient and the results with the designed hardware are promising. The developed control and power circuit functions properly and satisfies the application requirements. The motor is able to operate in all the four quadrants successfully. Regenerative braking is also achieved. First and foremost I take this opportunity to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my guide Mrs.
Rekha Jha for her able guidance during my project work.
This project would not have been possible without her help and the valuable time that he has given me amidst her busy schedule. I would also like to extend my gratitude to my friends and senior students of this department who have always encouraged and supported me in doing my work.
Last but not the least I would like to thank all the staff members of Department of Electrical Engineering who have been very cooperative with us. K Bose. Yengalwar, Samiksha S. Zade, Dinesh L. Books on Microcontroller: microcontroller and embedded systems  Maiocchi.
In cascade control system, there are two loops, inner current loop and outer speed loop. During a stall or rapid transient condition, current loop protects the DC motor from over-current fault tripping.
The outer speed loop maintains the speed in varying load torque by controlling the demand current which fed in inner current loop. The figure-3, shows diagram of cascade speed control of DC motor. The motor rig contents two motor of same specifications which are coupled together as shown in figure. The DC motor is attached with optical encoder which gives signal of some frequency and that frequency is directly proportional to speed of DC motor.
On other hand, load DC motor is attached tacho-generator which generates DC voltage which is also proportional to speed of load DC motor. Since shaft of both DC motor and load DC motor are coupled together, they should rotate with same angular velocity and thus frequency of encoder signal and voltage generated by tacho-generator should indicate same angular speed of DC motor.
The figure-5 shows the picture of flexible inverter board.
The figure-6, shows the flexible inverter board connection diagram. In this figure, U2 connector is used to program dsPIC30F microcontroller, J2 connector is used to send and receive data from PIC to LABVIEW software interface, J9 connector is used to get encoder signal from optical encoder to microcontroller, J20 and J24 connector is used to power the flexible inverter board and DC motor is connected from J13 connector which is also output voltage of H-bridge.
The Fig-7 right shows picture of RL load.
This RL load is used in project in initial stage to check the flow of current, before connecting DC motor. In this project, current clamp is also used to observe current waveform on oscilloscope and measure current ripple and average value of current.
Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control using 8051 Microcontroller
The figure-7 left show the picture current clamp used in this project. The microcontroller dsPIC30F receives analogue signal from current sensor LTS-6NP and digital signal from optical encoder as current feedback and speed feedback signal respectively to imply digital cascade control on DC motor.
This microcontroller have different type of unit inside it which is shown in figure-8 in simplified diagram.
The memory unit is where C program is stored in hex format. CPU unit is a place where all athematic calculation and logical calculation are done.
The encoder unit is a place where microcontroller reads the frequency of optical encoder and PWM unit is a place where microcontroller sends signals to gate driver IC IR to control H-bridge. The figure-9 shows the timing diagram of dsPIC30F The in-circuit debugger unit IC3 has feature to debug the C language program which is used to program microcontroller, which mean after programming microcontroller, the code can be checked line by line and effect of every line of code can be observed and this allow us to change the code to make microcontroller work properly.
The work of this software is convert C language into assembly language using complier small software inside MPLAB like C16 and then convert it to machine code.
The main reason converting C language into hex file is that microcontroller only understand binary form and hex file is in binary form which hard for engineer to understand and on other hand C language is easy to understand by engineer but microcontroller cannot understand C language so it needs to be converted into binary form which is called hex file.
This software is used to receive data like digital format current sensor values, digital format potentiometer voltage value, PDC1 and PDC2 register value and rpm value which is used by microcontroller to calculate speed while C program is running. This data is send by transmit interrupt function in C language code. The use of LABVIEW is to send data like duty cycle in open loop , current demand while checking working current loop and speed demand while check speed loop.
But in some practical applications, motors are required to operate both in a clockwise direction, anti-clockwise direction, reverse braking, forward braking conditions.
These modes of operation of DC motors can be achieved using four quadrant DC motor speed control with microcontroller. If we consider various types of DC motors such as series DC motors, shunt DC motors, and compound DC motors, then the speed of each DC motor can be controlled by varying quantities on the right hand side of the above equation.
So, an interfacing medium called as motor driver IC is required to interface the motor with microcontroller as shown in the figure below.
Typically, IC LD having 16 pins as shown in the figure below is used for DC motor interfacing with microcontroller. The four quadrant operation of DC motor such as clockwise rotation, anti-clockwise rotation, forward braking operation, and reverse braking operation can be performed using microcontroller based circuits.
The project circuit diagram for four quadrant DC motor speed control with microcontroller is shown in the below figure. In these cases, the DC motor can be controlled using this method.Yengalwar, Samiksha S. The carrier waveform is of 10 KHz which has PWM time period of micro-second and two black line are modulation index value going in leg-A upper black line and leg-B lower black line , So in both legs when modulation index is greater than carrier waveform, the leg has 24 DC volt and when modulation index is smaller than carrier waveform, the leg has 0 DC volts.
When start switch is pressed the motor starts rotating in full speed being driven by a motor driver IC LD that receives control signal continuously from the microcontroller. In brake chopper circuit, resistor get heated and convert electrical energy to heat energy.
Push buttons are provided for the operation of the motor which are interfaced to the microcontroller that provides an input signal to it and controls the speed of the motor through a motor driver IC. It is used in wide range of application which includes: speed control, power control, measurement and communication.
Default is 10e Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor.
The four quadrant operation of the dc motor is best suited for industries where motors are used and as per requirement they can rotate in clockwise, counter-clockwise and also apply brakes immediately in both the directions.
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