Sep 28, Book digitized by Google from the library of the University of California and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb. Get this from a library! Lithuania: a drama in one act. [Rupert Brooke]. Rupert Brooke's annotated manuscript of 'Lithuania; A Drama in One Act', written in. King's College, Cambridge. The Papers of Rupert Chawner Brooke.
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Comparative Study of the Lithuanian Classical Drama. The present publication is those are represented by the study of contacts of Lithuanian literature with. The story depicts the home of a poor family living in a valley of-LITHUANIA, and might thank the Universe that it was the only play Rupert Brooke ever wrote. Lithuania, a small and beautiful country on the coast of the Baltic Sea, has often inspired artists. summer celebrations as well as opera, ballet and drama.
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Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item One-act plays Additional Physical Format: Clothing, like many other things, was often wrapped in nostalgic reminiscences.
Many villagers bought their clothing at a so-called skudurynai second-hand stores, the Lithuanian word skudurynai literally means a "place for rags".
However, clothing bought at second hand stores stinks, "but you cannot download at a store - it's so expensive" Renata in her early forties. According to a librarian in her fifties, "earlier it was shortages, blatas, but people did not make the rounds of those second-hand stores.
Even the poorest did not download there. And now intellectuals wear used underwear [laughs]. There were no second hand stores, well, there were these consignment stores [komisai]. But you didn't even look in that direction.
And now? Now it's finished. Now you cannot download a new item at a shop. Otherwise you would have nothing. And in earlier times, when you went to a store, from every salary you downloadd things for yourself, for your children, and He is charged with the maintenance of church buildings and surroundings, including a graveyard, and thus has access to used candles.
Sensing the used dress or a suit on their bodies, people think about the inequality and social difference that defines their post-Soviet lives. Some feel that "in the other times" they were fuller, because they had things to put on the table at parties, which are seldom given today. It was the time, informants reiterate, when "food was cheap and we had money," while at present "there are goods, but there is no money.
Villagers can rarely download bananas or oranges, which only rarely appeared in stores in Soviet times. For villagers, their experiences of contracting social space were everyday reminders of changing social position and place in family, community, and society. They recalled Soviet times as full of happiness, togetherness, and social harmony. Conversely, emptiness, quiescence, and sadness defined the social space of the present. Interviewees claimed that now people are less cheerful, more disappointed and angry, living in stress, and depressed.
They recalled gathering for potato harvest seasons in Soviet times. According to Kazys, a city resident and a pensioner in his early sixties who was born in a village, in Soviet times children and grandchildren from the cities used to come, "the time was much more alive. Kazimiera recalled that in Soviet times a movie was shown every week. In the past, according to the villagers, they went to the opera and ballet in the capital city Vilnius, as well as on tourist trips outside the country to the Caucasus or Crimea.
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Now, in the words of Jadvyga N. Even if someone did, a ticket to an opera Nobody takes people anywhere anymore. Villagers and some city residents referred to villages in general as "drowning in alcoholism. But they had jobs.
Maybe they drank on Fridays. And now - every day You had to work. How will you drive a tractor drunk? How will you work? Maybe sometimes on Fridays or when we got paid. We used to meet and celebrate [aplaistyti]. They came; if they found you drunk, you lost half of your pay. That's how it was. Povilas's wife, who, like Povilas, was unemployed after the dissolution of the kolkhoz, complained about him drinking too much; she also agreed that earlier Povilas drank less.
Like everyone in the kolkhoz, according to her, he "had to work, and care for cattle at home. Villagers said alcohol was among the most important reasons for his untimely death. Insecurity is another experience that reminds people of good Soviet times. People remember that they lived without locks on their doors, were not afraid of burglars, did not think or hear about murders. Many traveled or went out at night if they needed to.
Marija claimed that now people get killed. Earlier, in Russian times, I don't know, but maybe the laws were different.
And now it is no big deal to kill someone. If you steal a chicken, you may spend more years in prison than for a case of murder. I don't know Conversely, the past was presented as a time of order and justice. You were punished for everything. And now nothing However, these are also narratives of experience.
The Vitkus family reported that their cow was taken from right behind the house and butchered in the field. One older man from another village was locked outside his apartment until the burglars took what they wanted.
Post-Soviet moral degradation is ubiquitous. Elvyra, a Kaunas doctor in her early sixties, remembered: The earlier generation came from the countryside. It was a healthy peasant generation Without alcoholism [or] degradation They're so self-serving. I remember when I was little we used to say "my word of honor. And now Does anyone remember what they promise?.. What I don't like is this invasion of American culture. Everyone goes for it.
What's going on in Russia [Russia is also affected by American culture]. Such debauchery Lithuanians were modest. In all of these cases nostalgia depends upon abstraction, selectivity, and forgetfulness.
The Journal of University of Warsaw
Nostalgia romanticizes and glorifies the past, and dramatizes the past for the present. Nevertheless, it is an important historical and political commentary on post-Soviet alterity and the neoliberal regimes of difference.
Peoples' narratives merge sensations of materialities, such as cold and insecurity, with their expectations and desires of well-being and respectful 19 citizenship. Nostalgia emerges in the space of incommensurability between the experiential and the expected. Although in nostalgic commentaries, informants objectify their social difference, nostalgia is also a way to reclaim the ideal and moral self, as well as one's status and dignity.
Positive memories of Soviet times not only reintegrate the Soviet tradition into the present and provide continuity for identity; they reinvoke the whole semiotic space in which an individual is an honorable person and where his or her life has significance cf. Ferguson Maria Todorova concludes that in such circumstances, nostalgia can be subsumed under the Marxist notion of false consciousness Todorova As Dearma Davidson notes in the case of Germany, the Western economic victory over socialism is capitalist democracy's moral victory.
The "here and n o w " of national politics, official histories, and mainstream news is a time of wealth and freedoms, a point of progress beyond fascism and dictatorship Davidson or beyond totalitarianism and economic stagnation in the former Soviet states. The moral ranking of states, in which West is superior to East, is a fundamental cultural knowledge that underlies mainstream discursive norms Davidson The West's superiority over the East and, in case of post-Soviet states, the "Soviet," is also a fundamental legitimacy narrative of post-Socialist and post-Soviet regimes.
Therefore, struggles against nostalgia are intrinsic to the Eastern European normalization of post-Socialist statehood and citizenship. By associating nostalgia with backwardness, stagnation, and the past, they gloss over the fact that nostalgia is immanent to post-Soviet modernity, as well as to post-Soviet citizenship regimes.
Furthermore, because of various national and transnational circulations, nostalgia is inflated, since the oppositions in which differences between higher-order collectives, like the geopolitical and moral orders of East and West, are laid onto lower-order discords, like local disagreements about the meaning and value of the past; this adds the force and meaning of the greater antipathy to ongoing local differences see Sahlins on symbolic amplification.
The antagonisms of the Cold War and post-Cold War eras are added to arguments between individuals, in this way inflating nostalgia disputes out of all proportion to the original reasons of those who long for Soviet times. During such nostalgia inflation, the arguments about the past are often displaced - for example, villagers and urban residents whom I interviewed did not deny the atrocities of Soviet times.
They did not long for tology and revisionism see Fitzpatrick For a recent critique of the scholarship on socialism that reinforces the Cold War binaries see Yurchak See Cohen 2. Moreover, if asked directly, they usually claimed that they wouldn't like the USSR to return. In their nostalgia discourse they speak of different issues intrinsic to the arguments about their post-Soviet suffering and which are actually commentaries on post-Soviet society and the state.
This article explores how post-Soviet marginalization is experienced through sensations which instigate nostalgia discourse. Through these sensations nostalgia becomes an embodied experience. Its physicality is important for an understanding of self, society, and social history. The producers of in the Bunker try to reeducate people by making socialism a similar sensory experience, the experience of abuse, fear, and uncertainty.
However, as this article shows, it is the present, not the past, that has to be the major plot for a post-socialist drama meaningful to those who long for Soviet times.
By accusing the nostalgics of having a false consciousness and remaking them into social others, the mainstream public like the producers of in the Bunker, repeatedly deny their right for a respectful citizenship and exclude them from the post-Soviet modernity project. References Abercrombie Thomas. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Ashwin Sarah.
Russian Workers: the Anatomy of Patience. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Bakhtin Mikhail. Rabelais and his World. Iswolsky, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Balockaite Rasa. Can You Hear Us? Berdahl Daphne. Berkeley: University of California Press. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bernard H. Russell ed.
Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. Raisons pratiques. Sur la theorie de faction. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Boyer Dominic. Boym Svetlana.
The Future of Nostalgia. New York: Basic Books.
Burawoy Michael, Verdery Katherine eds. Caldwell Melissa.
Cohen R. Connerton Paul. How Societies Remember. Davidson Deanna. Davis Fred. Yearning for Yesterday: a Sociology of Nostalgia. New York: Free Press. Westport: Praeger. Ferguson James. Fitzpatrick Sheila. Hann Chris.
Postsocialism: Ideals, Ideologies, and Practices in Eurasia. Herzfeld Michael. New York: Routledge. Humphrey Caroline. The Geography of Rural Change: Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. Kelertas Violeta. Baltic Postcolonialism. New York: Rodopi. Kideckel David. Postsocialism: Ideals, Ideologies, and Practices in Eurasia: London: Routledge. Knudsen Ida Harboe. Lambek Michael. Lankauskas Gediminas.
Matuzas Vitas. Mclntyre Robert. Mincyte Diana. PhD dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign.
The Music Repertoire of the Society of Jesus in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1565–1773)
Orwell George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Seeker and Warburg. Durham: Duke University Press.
Paxson Margaret. Solovyovo: the Story of Memory in a Russian Village. Blo- omington: Indiana University Press. Pelkmans Mathijs. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Petrovic Tanja.
Pine Frances, Bridger Sue eds. London, New York: Routledge. Pine Frances. Retreat to the Household? Rausing Sigrid.
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ries Nancy. Russian Talk: Culture and Conversation during Perestroika.
Rosaldo Renato. Culture and Truth: the Remaking of Social Analysis. Boston: Beacon Press. Sahlins Marshall. Halle Studies in the Anthropology of Eurasia. Schwartz Katrina. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Lund Monographs in Social Anthropology Lund, Sweden: Lund University. Todorova Maria. From Utopia to Propaganda and Back. Velikonja Mitja. Titostalgia - a Study of Nostalgia for Josip Broz. Verdery Katherine.
Lithuania: A Drama in One Act
Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Yet Another Europe? Representations on the Margins of Europe. Frankfurt and New York: Campus. Vonderau Asta. Warner Michael.In the dark. Villagers thus experience not only the loss of their role as agricultural producers, but also of their role as consumers because of their limited income. Many residents had to install their own furnace or build fireplaces, since the price for central heating increased tremendously.
By accusing the nostalgics of having a false consciousness and remaking them into social others, the mainstream public like the producers of in the Bunker, repeatedly deny their right for a respectful citizenship and exclude them from the post-Soviet modernity project. Villagers said alcohol was among the most important reasons for his untimely death. Rather than judging nostalgia against its accuracy and truth value, I show that certain pasts are granted authenticity and become integral to articulation of post-Soviet publics and citizenship, while others are marginalized and negated.
It is possible that the nostalgia discourse was intensified by Rolandas I'aksas presidential campaign of , which appealed to many villagers' and urban residents' sentiments about social history and everyday life. In the past, according to the villagers, they went to the opera and ballet in the capital city Vilnius, as well as on tourist trips outside the country to the Caucasus or Crimea.
They came; if they found you drunk, you lost half of your pay.
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